Spatial distribution of natural available energy reserves. The impact of mankind on the environment. The notion of regional development, indicators for measuring it. Convergence or divergence of the regions? Theories interpreting regional disparities: theories of self-counterbalancing – development and theories of imbalance – underdevelopment. Programmes of regional development and their evaluation. Hierarchy of the settlement network. The boundaries of the settlements’ influence. Models for describing settlement systems: central place theories, settlements hierarchy – rand size rule, primate city, spatial interrelation – Reilly law, diffusion model. How is a city defined, what are the factors that determine the urbanization process. Historic development of cities: preindustrial city (civil, commercial city), industrial, post-industrial city, city in the underdeveloped countries. Ecological, geographical and economic models for the organisation of a city. What are the factors that determine the distribution of activities within the city. Urban land market.